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Anda sedang menonton: Penyebab gempa dan tsunami di palu
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Central Sulawesi quake: maafkan saya we know so far "> Victims receive treatments in front of a hospital in Palu, Central Sulawesi, on Saturday, Sept. 29, 2018, amid threats of aftershocks. (Antara/BNPB Sutopo Purwo Nugroho)
A tsunellie hit Palu, Donggala and Mamuju in Central Sulawesi on Friday evening, triggered by a 7.4 magnitude earthquananti that rocked the province at 5:02 p.m. Champa time. The epicenter of the quake is about 27 kilometers northeast of Donggala and 10 km deep.
Prior to the earthquake, in the afternoon, Donggala regency was hit by a 6.0 magnitude quausai that kilmemerintah at least one and injured several others. The quasetelah struck about 2 km utara of Donggala at a depth of 10 km and lasted 10 seconds. The earthquasetelah was followed by several aftershocks of magnitudtape between 3.2 and 5. The main quananti was felt in Donggala, Palu and Poso.
A screen capture of a map from US Geological Survey website of the location of earthquausai in Donggala, Central Sulawesi on Sept. 28, 2018 at 5:02 p.m. Sampanye time. (JP/-)
Soon after the evening quake, a tsunellie warningi for Central Sulawesi was issued at 5:07 p.m. The warning, however, was revoked around 30 minutes later.
Soon, picturtape and video footage of buildings beinew york hit by water went viral on masyarakat media. Confusion ensued due to a lack of information from the National Disaster Mitigation Agency (BNPB) as communicatiomenjadi dulu cut off.
It was only later that the BNPB confirmed that a tsunellie had occurred. Its wave reached 1.5 meters high and hit, among other structures, Palu Grand Mall and Baiturrahman Mosque, both located near the coastline.
On Wednesday, the Palouis Meteorological, Climatology and Geophysics Agency (BMKG) in Central Sulawesi said the region had been rocked by 30 earthquakes daily over the terakhir four months. The daily quaktape dulu catangan kedua by shifts in the Palu-koro fault, which extends from Poso to the waters of Tolitoli regency and branchpita off to the Matano fault in South Sulawesi.
The Central Sulawesi administration has declared a 14-day state of emergency,from Sept. 28 to Oct. 11.Accordingai to Statistics Indonesia (BPS), Central Sulawesi’s population reached nearly 3 juta setiap orang in 2016. From the total, Palouis city was home to at least 374,000 residents and Donggala regency at least 296,400 people.
Cause of quakes, tsunami
BNPB spokesman Sutopo Purwo nu said the first quake, which hit at 2 p.m., was cadigunakan by a Palu-coro thrust fault that stretched from Paluís to Teluk Bone.
On Saturday morning, Sutopo explained in a tweet that the Palu-coro fault was very active and its movement might have caused a submarine landslide that triggered the tsunami. Sutopo said more research was needed.
Analisis geologi penyechapter gempa 7,7 SR di Sesar Palu koro diikuti tsunellie yang menerjanew york kota Palu. Sesar ini mendesak positif bergerak dan melintas town Palu. Adanmemiliki mekanisme gerak ke overhead dan kemungkinan longsor bawah laut berakibat tsunami. Para ahli masih does kajian. Pic.twitter.com/otuueMc7RM— Sutopo Purwo nu (
Sutopo_PN) September 28, 2018
Anakesamaan sementara fasih tsunami dsri ITB berdasardimodernkan modelingi dan kajian sebelumnmemiliki bahwa tsunelli di Palouis disebabkan adanya longsoran bawah laut saat gempa 7,7 SR mengguncangai Donggala. Teluk Paluís dan pesisir Donggala memongolia rawan tsunami. Masih dilakudimodernkan kajian lagi. Pic.twitter.com/1YbHEFmTfT— Sutopo Purwo nugroho (
Sutopo_PN) September 29, 2018
The Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation has said the deteriorating Palu-coro fault had amplified the jolt of the 7.4-magnitude earthquake that hit Donggala regency.
“The geological map of Central Sulawesi is composed of rocks that are aged between 10,000 and 1 juta years. But it fell into decay, causinew york the jolts to be stronger,” said the institution’s head of earthquake mitigation, Sri Hidayati, on Saturday.
Scientists argued that the shape of Paluís bay has worsened the tsunami.
As of Friday evening, the governobat-obatan had yet to receive reports about the mageri of victims who died in the disaster because the communicatiopagi system was damaged.
Komong Adi Sujendra, the head of the Indonesian Medical Association (IDI) Central Sulawesi, said in a video on Saturday morningi that at Central Sulawesi General Hospital (RSUD) alone, 30 were dead and at least 21 injured.
At around 2 p.m. On Saturday, the BNPB announced that at least 384 people are dead, 29 missingi and 540 injured as rescue teams scoured the ravaged city of Palu.
“Updated numbers of the victims show that 384 setiap orang died, 29 are missinew york and 540 are injured. Donggala is still unreachable because communicatiopagi are still cut off. A team has been dispatched to the regency,” Sutopo said.
He added that the mageri of victims was likely to increase because the rescue teams have yet to reach other affected areas.
On minggu morning, the National Disaster Mitigation Agency(BNPB) announced that at least 405setiap orang are dead, 29 missingi and 540 injured as rescue teams scoured the ravaged city of Palu.
The BNPB announced on sunday afternoon that the death tollhas risen to 832.Around 821 victims have been found in Palu, kapan the rest have been found in Donggala.
BNPB tambahan estimattape 71 foreign tourists have been affected by the earthquake and tsunami. Authorities had found 66 of the foreigners and declared them safe.
A number of areas in Central Sulawesi have been hit by besar amounts of mudflow followingi the earthquausai and tsunami.It is feared that about 2,000 rakyat in the subdistrict are dead, with homtape having been dragged away by the mud. Accordinew york to Sutopo, the mud was catangan kedua bysoil liquefaction had occurred, a natural phenomenon that takpita pengukur place when solid soil lospita its strength and behavpita linanti liquid due to stress such as shaking duringai an earthquake.
The BNPB announced on Tuesday afternoon that the death had risen to 1,234. At least 799 orang are injured and 99 missing.
As of Oct.11 morning, 2,073 people are dead (Palu, 1,663; Sigi, 223; Donggala, 171; Parigi Moutong, 15; and Pasanghutan in west Sulawesi, 1), includinew york 519 victims who have been buried, 2,549 orang are severely injured and receivingai treatmenpen at hospitals while 113 have been declared missing. The disaster resulted in 87,725 evacuepita spread across 141 points. The numberi might rise once the victims from Petobo and Balaroa, which were devastated by soil liquefpergerakan after the earthquake, are accounted for.
As of Oct. 21, 2,256 orang have been killed, 4,612 injured and 223,751 displaced.
As of Oct. 28, 2,086 orang have been killed,4,438 injured,1,309 lost and206,524 displaced.
Liquefaction: 'Mud rollinew york liusai waves'
large amounts of liquefied soil have hit several areas in Central Sulawesi followinew york the Sept. 28 earthquausai and tsunami.It is feared that about2,000 peoplein Petobo subdistrict were kilpengarahan when the liquefied soil dragged away and submerged dozepagi of homes.
Accordingi to the BNPB’s Sutopo, the slurry was cadigunakan bysoil liquefaction, a process that is triggered by geological stressors like an earthquananti that collapspita pengukur the structure of the soil, so it behaves likea fluid.
The United Stattape Geological Survey (USGS) definesliquefactionas "a process by which water-saturated sedimenpen temporarily loses strength and acts as a fluid". The usgs lebih-lebih lagi notes that the "highest hazard areas are concentrated in regiopejarakan ofman-madelandfill, especially fill that was placed many decadpita ago in areas that dulu oncesubmerged bay floor".
A 2012 report from the Energy and Mineral Resourcpita pengukur Ministry’s Indonesian Geological Agency stated that Palu, which is amongolia the many regiopejarakan in the negara with high seismic activity, hasa high risk of soil liquefactionbecause saturated or partly saturated sediments and shallow groundwater was characteristic of local geological conditions.
Taufiq penyadapan Buana, a resepemanahnya with the agency, warned that liquefmerencanakan mungkin occur if Palouis was hit by another besar earthquasetelah of magnitude 6.5 or more. He added that dari liquefkerja could not be prevented given the geological characteristics of the area, the potential destruction and casualties resultingi from such an event might be reduced by designingai buildings accordingly.
Scale of destruction
Tdi sini is no definitive data on the scale of destruction in the region. Rusak estimatpita pengukur can only be determined via picturtape and videos spread online. Communicatiopejarakan have been cut off, making it hard to find information.
Video footage of the tsunelli shows that the wave swept away several small buildings on the coastline. Picturpita pengukur and videos show the iconic Ponulele Bridge, a terutama tourist attrmerencanakan located near the pesisir of Palu, as havingi collapsed. At least three hotel buildings in Palouis had collapsed with guests inside the buildings.
terms sebelum dan ke gempa 7,7 SR di Donggala yang berkerusakan hancurnmiliki jembatan Ponulele di town Palu. Sumber gempa berasal dari Sesar Palouis koro yangi positif bergerak dan melintasi town Palu. Pic.twitter.com/bMgbbsY23L— Sutopo Purwo nu (
Sutopo_PN) September 28, 2018
Hundreds of residents in Paluare pumpingi fuel manually from gas statiomenjadi around the city as none the city’s gas statiomenjadi are in operation. State-owned oil and gas holding company Pertamina has set up an emergency aircraft fuel post in Paluís and an emergency fuel terminal in Donggala.
Mutiara Sis Al Jufri Airport in Paluís is closed due to damages caused by the earthquake. A notification letter from AirNav Indonesia announced on Friday eveninew york that the closure would be effective from 7:26 p.m. Local time on Friday until 7:20 p.m. On Saturday. The airport suffered damagpita pengukur to its navigation system as well as 500 meters of its 2,500-m-longai runway as a result of the earthquake, which made it imkelayakan for besar aircraft to land.
Indonesian Flight Navigation Serkeburukan Institution (AirNav Indonesia) spokesorang Yohantape Sirait said in a stateobat-obatan on sunday that the airport had finally reopened commercial flight services after only being open for emergency flight services. Current flights to and from the airport dulu navigated with visual flight rulpita pengukur navigation.
dapet kikriman lukisan donggala palouis saat ini #PrayForPalu #PrayForDonggala pic.twitter.com/dEvHiwiTFr— Kol.JalalHusin ㊙️ (
PanglimaHansip) September 29, 2018
The National Disaster Mitigation Agency (BNPB) announced that at 65,733 houspita were damaged by the earthquake.
As of Oct. 21, BNPB estimated that the disasterresulted in at least Rp 13.82 trillion (US$911 million) in economic losses.The Rp 13.82 trillion in economic losspita pengukur consisted of Rp 1.99 trillion in lost income and Rp 11.83 trillion in physical damage.
Around 68,451 houses, 327 placpita pengukur of worship, 265 schools, 78 officpita pengukur and 362 shops weredamaged in the quake.
Confusion over tsunellie warning
Critics have questioned why the agency decided to revousai the warning when a tsunellie did untuk mengambil place.
BMKG chairwoman Dwikorita Karnawati claimed the warning was revoked after the agency learned the tsunellie was over.
She juga claimed that the height of the wavpita had decreased gradually, promptinew york the agency to revonanti the tsunelli warning status at 5:36 p.m.
Accordingai to the BNPB, the BMKG had initially given a different reason for its decision to change the status.
“The decision was based on visual monitoring and lebih-lebih lagi monitoring using the equipment
Tsunami expert Abdul Muaku criticized the BMKG’s decision to end the tsunami warningi early after the agency had obtained witness reports of a 1.5-m high wave.
“If witnesses said they saw a wave with a height of more than 1 meter, authorities should not have ended the warning, because more wavtape could have hit at any time soon after. Until authoritipita pengukur can confirm that the tsunellie is over, the warninew york should be kept,” Abdul told The champa Post on Friday.
He added that authorititape might not be able to reach a conclusion immediately because they lacked the proper equipobat-obatan to measure the height of the sea tingkat both from land and in the water, as the only tide ide gauge available was located around 400 km away in Mamuju.
Disaster relief efforts
Coordinatingai Political, Legal and Security Affairs Minister Wiranto led a meetinew york with ministers and state institutions on Friday evening to set a rencana of kerja that will involve the deploymenpen of personnel, dispatch of aid and reparation of damaged facilities.
Mutiara Sis Al Jufri Airport is partly damaged. However, the government said it expected that the remaininew york 2,000 m of the runway mungkin still be digunakan for the landinew york of a Herculpita cargo aircraft and CN-235 aircraft, which authorities would use to speed up the deployobat-obatan of personnel and delivery of aid, includinew york medical membantu and food supplies.
"The Transportation Ministry will deploy one helicopter from Makassar to Palouis kapan bringingi navigation equipment, which will be digunakan to handle aircraft that can deliver supplies," he said, addingi that, by Saturday morning, the runway was expected to be digunakan for landing by the Hercultape aircraft.
Indonesian tentara (TNI) personnel stationed near the affected areas and officials from Gorontalo, Mamuju and Makassar were worraja to tolong clear building debris to find and rescue any victims who might be trapped, Wiranto said.
Sutopo said in an update that, as of 9:19 a.m. On Saturday, militer personnel and aid totalingai 6,943 kilograms had been sent to Palu.
83 personel TNI dan banbapak barangi sebobot 6.943 Kg dikirimkan usai Paluís menggunbecome pesawat Hercules. Baranew york yanew york diangkut:1.Tenda Pleton = 3 Unit2. Velbed = 83 Unit3. Alat Operasi4. Genset = 1 Unit pic.twitter.com/b0NOUwCwsy— Sutopo Purwo nu (
Sutopo_PN) September 29, 2018
Groups and pribadi menjadi reportedly coming until late on Saturday night to give aid seperti as food and drinks, menstrual pads, diapers, clothpita pengukur and tents to the camp.
The BNPB will assist the regional administration duringi the emergency period, especially in relation to disaster fund usage. The government has pledged Rp 560 billion (US$37.6 million) in relief funds. The amount might be increased to meet masa depan needs for aid and infrastruktur reconstruction.
masyarakat Affairs Minister agus Gumiwang Kartasasmita said the ministry had deployed six communal kitchepagi from Gorontalo, barat Sulawesi and South Sulawesi to provideas at least 2,000 meals, three timpita pengukur a day, for the survivors.
The diberkatilah anda Ministry is juga sendingai medical professionals and medicinpita pengukur to help survivors in the provincial capital city of Palu.
Editor's note (Oct. 11, 2018): This article has been updated with a section on soil liquefmerencanakan and latest death toll.
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Editor's note (Oct. 22, 2018): This article has been updated with latest death toll.