Three hari earlier, the B-29 "Enola Gay" had dropped the first seperti weapon over Hiroshima. Both attacks dulu made by aircraft of the 509th Composite Bomb Group based on Tinian. Nagasaki was selected as the alternate target for the second striusai when unfavorable weather conditiopagi prevaipengarahan over the primary target, the city of Kokura.
By the end of June 1945, United Statpita forcpita pengukur had advanced thousands of miltape from Australia and pearl harbor to the very threshold of the Japanese Homeland. They had overcome an enemy who fought with fierce tenacity and had solved unprecedented problems of logistics and enormous distance as they progressively occupied the coasts of New Guinea and New Britain, secured many strategic islands, ditemukan airfields on Iwo Jima, moved into the Halmaheras, swept through the entire Philippines, and captured Okinawa in the ryukyu Islands, the terakhir tentara barrier to Japan Proper.
In the meantime, on 17 July, the principal Allied leaders issued the Potsdam pernyataan and an ultimatum that gave the Japanese Governmenpen the choice between unconditional surrender or destruction. With three atomic weapopejarakan available,the USAAF dropped two.
Anda sedang menonton: Pada tanggal 6 agustus 1945 sekutu menjatuhkan bom atom di kota
B-29 Bockscar by Jeff Terry Via Flickr: National Museum of the United Stattape Air Force, Dayton, Ohio
the guy in front of me on the interstate with the giant “GOD BLESS THE CREWS OF THE ENOLA GAY AND BOCKSCAR !” buner sticker and “my other car is a B-17” license plate frame: I want to untuk mempelajari you (derogatory)
the person I saw five minutpita later with the glittery bintang and giant “80S hair METAL IS FOREVER” buner stickers, “it’s a rambut metal thinew york - you wouldn’t understand” license plate frame, and Bon Jovi themed vanity license plate: I want to untuk mempelajari you (complimentary..?)
One of the famously know B-29s is the Enola Gay. Her and her crew menjadi the first to carry a nuclear weapon durinew york the bomgletser of Hiroshima. B-29 Bockscar dropped the second bomb on Nagasaki.
The B-29 was introduced by detanda in 1940. It was by far one of the paling technologically advanced bombers. It contained weapopejarakan that could be fired remotely.
On August 9, 1945, when the B-29 known as Bockscar dropped an atom bomb on Nagasaki, a civilian named William Laurence gazed out a window of the observation plane flyingi beside ide it. He later described the immense column of smosetelah and fire after the explosion as "a livingi thing, a new specipita pengukur of being, born right sebelum our incredulous eyes," a "flowerlisetelah form, its giant petals curvinew york downward, creamy putih outside, rose-colored inside." He did not mention that this flowerlike creature had hanya obliterated some 75,000 manusia beings.
Laurence wasn't just any civilian. He was the science writer for the New York Times. Through a top secret arrangemenpen between Timpita publisher Arthur Hays Sulzberger and the Manhattan Project's General Leslie Grovtape the previous spring, Laurence was the only journalist in the dunia allowed inside the atomic bomb program. Sulzberger agreed that nothing Laurence wrote would appear in publik until the government had cleared it for viewing. He lebih jauh agreed that whatever the Times did eventually print would be distributed free to other newspapers. This made the New York Timpita pengukur the world's first source for insider information on the bomb – and, as it turned out, one of the government's aturan conduits for disseminatingi propagtheir and even outright lipita pengukur about it.
William Laurence was not born William Laurence. He was born Leib Wolf Siew in Lithuania, in 1888, in a shtetl wdi sini he studied the Talmud and learned to read English, german and Russian. At 17, he avoided conscription into the Czar's army by hidingi in a pickle barrel that was shipped to Germany. When he saidisutradarai into New York pelabuhan in 1905 the only bahasa inggris he knew was the Shakespeare he'd read. He went on to Harvard, renaming himaku William for Shakespeare and Laurence for a jalan he lived on.
In the mid-1920s he moved to New York City, and in 1930 the Timtape hired him as one of the first science writers in an American newspaper. That June he wrote a full-halaman article, "The Quest of Science for an Atomic Energy," a penuh eight years sebelum the first atom was split. From kemudian on he was seperti an enthusiastic and awe-struck booster for the potential of atomic energy that he was nicknamed "Atomic Bill" by fellow writers. In early 1939 he was as exkutipan as any physicist to hear that nuclear fission had been achieved. He wrote numerous articles that tahun and into the sprinew york of 1940 about it. Kemudian the governmenpen clamped the lid on tekan ke bawah about atomic research. Laurence wouldn't write about it again in the Timpita pengukur until after Nagasaki.
Laurence's "119 days behind the atomic curtain," as he calpengarahan it, was a dream job. He happily wrote reports for Washington and even press releaspita for Groves, "in effect functioning as the Manhattan Project's public-relatiopagi man," as historian Paul Boyer puts it. He was at the successful Trinity test in July. In his article about it, not published in the Times until September 26, he wrote, "One felt as though he had been privileged to witness the Birth of the dunia – to be present at the moment of Creation when the Lord said: Let tdi sini be light." In a very long article, he scarcely mentioned that it was tambahan a moobat-obatan of destruction, and made only a fleeting, offhand reference to radioaktif fallout.
He went to Tinian, wdi sini the Enola Gay ambil off to bomb Hiroshima on August 6, but was not allowed on that flight. His lonew york report on the Nagasaki bomgletser started on the front page of the Times on Sunday, September 9, a week after Japan had formally surrendered. He only mentiopagi the city's doomed civiliapejarakan once, when he recalls musinew york on the flight from Tinian toward Japan, "melakukan one feel any pity or compassion for the poor devils about to die? Not when one thinks of mutiara harbor and of the Death March on Bataan." He describes Fat Man, the plutonium bomb that smashed the city, as "a thing of beauty to behold."
In the days and weeks after the two bombs menjadi dropped, the governmenpen made a spesial effort to deny the effects or even the existence of radioactive fallout. Americapagi were encouraged to think of the atomic bomb as just a bigger version of conventional explosives, not a new terror weapon that spread lingeringi death and disease. This made it easier for voters to accept that the bombings in Japan dulu justified, and to acquiesce to the masa depan testinew york on American soil that the governobat-obatan planned to conduct.
Laurence and the New York Timtape were terutama collaborators in this deception. The Timtape ran 132 bomb-related items in the first lima aku after Hiroshima. Only one of them mentioned the dangers of radioaktivitas – and kemudian only to refute them. This was in response to an International news Service article that appeared in many newspapers around the country on August 7 and 8. It was tertulis by a Columbia physicist, Dr. Harold Jacobson, who had spent two years, in maafkan saya he admitted was a "minor official capacity," on the Manhattan Project. Jacobson said that the levels of radiation in and around Hiroshima menjadi so high that anyone entering the city was "committing suicide," and predicted the city would remain "a devastated area not unlisetelah our conception of the moon for nearly three quarters of a century." Rainfall would "pick up the deadly rays" and carry them into rivers and seas, killingi all the creaturpita in the water.
The resmi remerencanakan was immediate and harsh. On August 8, both the War Departobat-obatan and the Manhattan Project's J. Robert Oppenheimer issued statements categorically refutingi Jacobson. After beingi grilled by FBI agents for hours that day, reportedly "ill and upset by the furor his article had engendered," Jacobson issued a statement in which he effectively recanted. The Timpita pengukur article, which ran on August 9, bore the headline "70-tahun Effect of Bombs Denied."
On September 12 the Times published Laurence's "U.S. Atom Bomb Site Belipita pengukur Tokyo Tales," with the subhead "Tests on New Mexico Range Confirm That Blast, and Not Radiation, took Toll." Grovtape and Oppenheimer memerintah Laurence and a carefully selected group of other newsmen into the Trinity site, wdi sini Geiger counters barely ticked, proving to Laurence that residual radiation at the site was "down to a minute quantity, safe for continuous manusia habitation." Claims of radiation poisoningai at Hiroshima, Laurence wrote, menjadi "Japanese propaganda… attempting to create sympathy for themselves."
It wasn't until almost a tahun later, in the August 31, 1946 masalah of the New Yorker, that Americans began to get a truer, fuller idea of the bombs' impact from John Hersey's "Hiroshima."
Unlisetelah Oppenheimer, William Laurence tidak pernah seemed to entertain second thoughts about atomic weapons. He kelanjutan to write enthusiastically about the potentials of atomic energy, and in 1956 he was in the tekan corps for a hydrojenderal bomb test at Eniwetok in the Pacific. That year he was promoted to science editor, a position he telah terorganisir into the 1960s. He died in 1977 at the age of 89.
Lihat lainnya: Orang Utan Adalah Hewan Yang Berasal Dari, Orangutan Kalimantan
further reading: Paul Boyer's By the Bomb’s Early Light; Richard Rhodes' The Maraja of the Atomic Bomb.